Submitted work by AmandaP

Analyzing Objects

Porcelain

Musket Ball

Smallpox

Nail

Reaper

Shirtwaist

Transistor

Coffee

Record

Tire

Dishwasher

Dress

Stereograph

Stone

Mail

Shoe

Question 1:
Historical thinking is the ability to analyze information from the past to comprehend how life was during that time as well as what significance the events have on present day life. In thinking historically, students must be able to consider perspectives and context of the historical events as they analyze the primary resources, constructing their own interpretation of historical events. They need to be able to compare and contrast these differing perspectives as they are learning.
Question 2:
Objects that can encourage historical thinking are artifacts and primary resources. Accounts from people who were actually present can help students to try to piece together the past. These primary resources need to show different perspectives of the same historical events. The artifacts would encourage students to think about what the objects were used for in the past.
Redirect: /content/what-historical-thinking
Module Id: 689
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The pattern on the cup appears to be very intricate. The outer edge appears to be scalloped and trimmed in metal. The saucer and the cup are matching which indicate that someone wealthy probably who could afford a matching set as there appears to be other pieces of the same pattern in the background.
Question 2:
Perhaps this tea cup and matching setting pieces were imported during the time period of Colonial America. It could have been imported from Great Britain during the time that the colonies were interdependent on goods from that country.
Redirect: /content/porcelain-resources
Module Id: 951
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The pattern on the cup appears to be very intricate. The outer edge appears to be scalloped and trimmed in metal. The saucer and the cup are matching which indicate that someone wealthy probably who could afford a matching set as there appears to be other pieces of the same pattern in the background.
Question 2:
Perhaps this tea cup and matching setting pieces were imported during the time period of Colonial America. It could have been imported from Great Britain during the time that the colonies were interdependent on goods from that country.
Redirect: /content/porcelain-resources
Module Id: 951
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
These objects appear to be different types of nails. They may have differing uses, like some may be used for roofing or others may be used for home construction. Some of the ends appear to be pointed, while others appear to be rectangular.
Question 2:
I wonder if some of the nails were produced in the colonies, while others were imported from other places. There artisans who were capable of working with iron like those that they show in the colonial reenactment at Williamsburg.
Redirect: /content/nail-resources
Module Id: 953
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
It is packaged in metal. The container belongs to a company that still exists, Nescafe. It appears to be coffee, maybe prepackaged for a soldier's ration in the war.
Question 2:
This can may be indicative of how food storage and preservation has changed over the decades. It may be part of the rationing that was used during one of the World Wars. It shows that the product was manufactured in New York, perhaps for an export to another country.
Redirect: /content/coffee-resources
Module Id: 1147
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
This looks like something under the microscope from biology class. It looks like some type of cell. It cannot be plant cell due to the shape. Plant cells are rectangular.
Question 2:
It could be an infectious disease that required a vaccine like polio. It could have been a sample of the 1918 flu strand that caused such havoc. I am not certain, but it perhaps could be.
Redirect: /content/smallpox-resources
Module Id: 954
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
These shoes appear to be hand-stitched. They have laces, but they appear to be smaller than the laces found in shoes of today. The soles do not look as if that they are made of a hard material. For some reason, these shoes appear to be slightly narrower than the shoes of today.
Question 2:
These shoes could belong to an artisan or a common citizen. They don't have any fancy adornments on them that would signify that they belonged to anyone who may have been affluent.
Redirect: /content/shoe-resources
Module Id: 1002
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
This looks to be a gravestone. I can see an inscription in it that appears to be very faint due to the stone being so old and being broken down. It possibly could be in a family owned graveyard, as we owned one that came with a home that my parents had purchased.
Question 2:
I wonder if this headstone belongs to an American who made a historical contribution to our society. Maybe it is not headstone at all, but rather is a marker to note a historical location. Perhaps it is the first headstone in the first cemetery here in the United States at Jamestown.
Redirect: /content/stone-resources
Module Id: 1039
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
This object appears to be handcrafted. It is not a shirt that is currently in fashion, so I am assuming that it is from a different era. The design appears to be very simple. It is not ornate or colorful.
Question 2:
It could be created using certain method, perhaps a technique of sowing or manufacturing. Perhaps the materials that it is composed of could be of significance. Maybe it was created from material that was not imported from Great Britain or another trading partner but was made from American cloth.
Redirect: /content/shirtwaist-resources
Module Id: 950
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
It says that it came from the Confederate States of America Post Office Department. It looks like it may be an important document because it says that it is official business and it is coming from an auditor. The addressee is one E.E. Alexander, Esquire. With this gentlemen being called "Esquire", he could be a lawyer.
Question 2:
This letter depicts the existence of a Confederate Post Office that shows that there was some type of organization to the government of the Confederacy. There is a postmark on it, so it had to have come through offices of some kind. The letter shows that despite the war that there was still correspondence going on and that daily life continued.
Redirect: /content/mail-resources
Module Id: 1021
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
It looks circular and small. It kind of looks like like a musket ball. I am not sure of what this object is, but it appears to be made of metal. It appears to be degrading in some way as it is not quite round on the front.
Question 2:
It could pertain to the type of ammunition that was used in the various wars. If it is a musket ball, it could have been used at some point in the Civil War. It could have been made by an individual or mass produced.
Redirect: /content/musket-ball-resources
Module Id: 955
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
It is an old record that appears to be for a victrola record player (phonograph) like the one in the logo. The dog's name is Nipper and the company that he represented was HMV (His Master's Voice). He was also the face of RCA, the Radio Corporation of America.
Question 2:
This record represents the development of mass communication in the United States with the arts. If one enjoyed a musical composition and wanted to share it with others or hear it repeatedly, then it was possible with this new technology. It would not be long until motion pictures were developed to share stories and cultural events.
Redirect: /content/record-resources
Module Id: 1128
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The kitchen around it looks to be from the 1940s or 1950s. I am not sure what the object is honestly. Could it be a dishwasher? I am still washing dishes by hand at my house as it was built in the 1870s before dishwashers were a thing. I could see where one could perhaps put dishes in the slots in this contraption.
Question 2:
This appliance was designed for convenience, to make the life of the American housewife simpler. As women began to appear more commonly in the workplace to assist in the supporting of their families financially, they had less time for domestic duties such as washing dishes.
Redirect: /content/dishwasher-resources
Module Id: 1093
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
It appears to gave some type of wheel at the bottom. Perhaps, it is horse-drawn with the poles on the sides of it. I am not sure of what this thing could be.
Question 2:
Perhaps, this invention made life easier. If it could have been a plow, then they could have plowed fields more easily. I am not certain of what type of machine that this is.
Redirect: /content/reaper-resources
Module Id: 952
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The photos pictured are antique. It appears to be some sort of sort of viewfinder type object that one can view photos with. I wonder if it appears to make them three-dimensional to the viewer.
Question 2:
Could this relate to the history of film development and photography? I wonder who owned this device and if that person was the inventor of it as great strides were being made technologically with inventions during the Industrial Revolution.
Redirect: /content/stereoscope-resources
Module Id: 1047
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
Her dress has a much more slender silhouette than dresses worn in early time periods. It appears that she could probably move with more ease than those women. Her dress is not elaborate. It is of a simple, yet beautiful design. It covers her wrists to her ankles. She has no gloves, but they appear to be in her hand. I wonder if she was driving the vehicle in the background or if she had been driven there.
Question 2:
I see that she has a Womenś Suffrage flag attached to her dress on the lapel of it. She appears to be with another female. The vehicle depicted at right looks to be decorated with some sort of white or light-colored material. I wonder if they are marching in a parade or protesting.
Redirect: /content/dress-resources
Module Id: 1075
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
There are so many tires in this picture. I am hoping that the people were planning on recycling them for another purpose and not attempting to burn them.
Question 2:
The invention of the horseless carriage would have posed a new dilemma for Americans. Where would the waste generated by this invention be placed? Cars needed tires and the disposal of the old ones would be problematic. Used horseshoes can be repurposed and do not take up nearly as much space!
Redirect: /content/tire-resources
Module Id: 1108
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
There looks like that there is not much around these three objects. There has to be a light coming from somewhere because there are shadows, but the objects look to be somewhere incredibly dark.
Question 2:
It appears to be some sort of equipment used at the moon landing perhaps. The equipment looks to be scientific in nature to me. Could it be something related to the Space Race that we pursued after the World Wars?
Redirect: /content/transistor-resources
Module Id: 1146
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
To think historically, students need to be able to have access to primary resources that are written from multiple perspectives, comprehend the context of the sources, and read multiple accounts of a historical event. Students must be able to analyze the information presented to them to create a personal understanding of historical events, noting the significance and impact of these events on our current time period. In addition, students need to be able to compare and contrast perspectives, understanding that events can be interpreted differently by individuals who were present.
Question 2:
The usage of artifacts in the room encourages students to explore what daily life of the past. I liked the connection the educator made with allowing students to handle objects in the classroom and make hypotheses without her intervening. Allowing students to explore artifacts allows them to make a personal connection with the content.
Redirect: /content/connections-essay-historical-thinking
Module Id: 689
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
My hypothesis did prove to be correct about the tea cup being imported from England and most likely belonging to wealthy colonial household who could afford the luxury of owning it. From the module, it was stated that the English actually prohibited the colonists from making certain goods. This set had to have passed through England as it was imported. The English had to have charged the colonists who purchased it taxes. This porcelain could have been manufactured in the English porcelain factories and sent to the colonies. By forbidding the colonists to manufacture certain goods, the English controlled them economically and forced them to dependent on Great Britain. The type of porcelain pictured in the photo was prevalent in the wealthier colonial households from the 1750s and 1770s. The colonies provided Great Britain with raw materials for the manufacture of goods.
The clay used in the production of the Bow porcelain was imported from Franklin County, North Carolina beginning in 1743 when a patent for a porcelain recipe called for the usage of this clay called "unaker". A shipment of twenty-nine tons of this so-called Cherokee clay from this region of North Carolina arrived in London in the years of 1743 and 1744, demonstrating the need of English for natural resources to produce goods.
Question 2:
In order to better comprehend the causes of the American Revolution, I would like to examine different primary resources from people who were present at the various events that led up to the war. I would like to look at the perspectives of people who were of different political affiliations and socioeconomic groups. I feel that examining the perspectives of different people would aid me in better comprehending the causes of the conflict.
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Module Id: 951
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The value of nails was extremely high due to the fact that they had to created by artisans who could work with the iron. While I knew that they were of great value in the early days of our nation, I did not comprehend how valuable that they truly were. I grew up in a home constructed in 1737, and we had guests remark on the nails that we had that were visible in the bottom story of the house. I had no idea that the governor actually had to address the burning of homes to recover the precious nails.
The mass production of the nails, much like the mass production of commonplace items such as furniture and textiles, made those goods more easily obtained and affordable to people of different socioeconomic classes. The mass produced nails made it easier for people to construct other types of homes besides log cabins and costly stone houses, making building and owning a home a reality for more people.
In addition, there were new weaving processes created in the late 1700s that created a lighter and cheaper cloth that allowed more people to have access to it in Great Britain that required the construction of vast factories that were capable of holding hundreds of employees. This beginning of the Industrial Revolution was going to spread to the United States by the 1830s.
Question 2:
We have one of those cabins on our property that my grandfather was born in that had originally belonged to members of our family generations ago. They were French immigrants who were carpenters by trade, who found themselves moving west when they settled here in the Appalachians. I suppose that I did not consider that they constructed this type of home perhaps due to how quickly it could be constructed or due to the lack of the nails.
When I think of westward expansion, the log cabin always does spring to my mind. I previously thought that these homes were constructed due to the availability of lumber in these areas, but I did not consider the lack of resources such as nails. I now understand with the lack of settled areas as they traveled westward and the sheer expense of the nails how difficult that they would have been to obtain.
Redirect: /content/nail-connections-essay
Module Id: 953
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
My original thoughts were somewhat on track. The instant coffee was a creation of necessity with the war effort of the World War. We take it for granted as being something that is commonplace in our homes, but we don't think about the necessity that caused the invention of these products. The preservation of food products was revolutionized during the war to aid our soldiers and ended up being passed onto the American consumer after the goods were no longer needed for the war effort.
We still utilize these products such as Spam and Nescafe in our homes, as these advances were passed onto us. Food is still preserved in this manner with the cans, the usage of dried materials, and dehydrated foods that have longer shelf-lives.
The technology employed in these food producing methods has been refined in the years since the wars, and we are still continuing to benefit from the convenience of these products in our busy lives. As a working mother, do I have time to make a cake from scratch? No, but Pillsbury cake mix can help me make it seem as though I had!
Question 2:
The convenience of products in the household are still advertised toward women, as we are still viewed as the others who complete most of the domestic duties in households. In the laundry detergent and vacuum cleaner commercials, women are always depicted. In fact with the working woman, many of our partners now shoulder part of the household duties. As I type this, my husband is currently washing a load of our sons' clothing for the upcoming week. They were trying to convince women to purchase these new products for convenience in housekeeping and homemaking duties, whereas today's woman needs no convincing to go with a product that offers convenience. The traditional roles of yesteryear had women as homemakers, not working outside of the home. Those women believed that others who purchased the instant products were lazy or sloppy according to the survey that that they were given. Today, most of my female peers do work outside of the home. We simply do not have the time to make elaborate meals, etc.while serving as financial providers for our families.
Redirect: /content/coffee-connections-essay
Module Id: 1147
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The smallpox epidemic plagued the world for thousands of years. Pharaoh Ramses V fell victim to this disease as well as many European monarchs including Queen Mary II, Louis the XV, and Tsar Peter of Russia. It was once noted that one in every seven of Russian children had the disease in the 18th century, some not even receiving a name until they had proven that they could survive this deadly epidemic.
The smallpox epidemic certainly was not limited to Europe. When the Europeans arrived to colonize North America, they unfortunately brought smallpox with them. It is estimated that over a third of the Native American population was killed due to having no immunity to the disease. The slaves brought from the African countries could often fall victim to the disease as well.
Smallpox created quite the panic in Boston where eventually a smallpox vaccine was required for citizens of the city. During this time, Onesimus, a slave who belonged to famed minister Cotton Mather, described a method of protecting oneself from the disease by putting pus from an infected person into an open wound on one’s arm. Of the 242 people that were subjected to this treatment, only six died from the disease, proving to be an effective treatment for that time period. A vaccine was developed by British doctor Edward Jenner after he had injected material from a cowpox lesion into a young boy after recognizing a cowpox and smallpox connection. The development of this vaccine has impacted how we currently develop vaccines to combat deadly diseases today.
Unfortunately, smallpox has also been utilized as biological warfare. In 1763, a commander in chief of the British forces in North America wanted soldiers to give out blankets that had belonged to smallpox victims to purposely infect indigenous people. As late as 1992, there have been countries around the world exploring the reintroduction of smallpox for nefarious purposes.
Question 2:
Understanding the impact of infectious diseases on the course history is extremely important. What would the impact have been of those historical figures who were eradicated by the epidemics? It is estimated at the beginning of the 18th century that 400,000 Europeans fell victim to the disease annually. How would these people have contributed to society?
The way that these diseases were treated in those times influence how we deal with infectious diseases today. The concept of the vaccination was introduced by Edward Jenner and is still utilized today as our scientists are currently working diligently to develop a vaccination for the deadly coronavirus. Without documentation of these techniques and historical records of such diseases, we may still be at the mercy of the epidemics of diseases that they have developed vaccines for or even eradicated in the case of smallpox.
Redirect: /content/connections-essay-smallpox
Module Id: 954
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The shoes are significant in explaining how the government's relationship with the citizens began to shift during this Civil War. The federal government had to depend on small businesses to provide the goods necessary to equip the army during this time. The demand for items such as shoes caused the manufacturing industry to be revolutionized, but not quickly enough to well-equip the army, particularly in the less industrialized South. The government had to charge an income tax eventually to assist in raising much needed funds.
The shoes were of great importance as well because if one had shoes then he or she could travel to assist with the war effort. Toward the end of the end of the war, shoes became in even higher demand when materials to make them became scarce.
Question 2:
The resources that I would utilize to depict the changing relationship between the government and its citizens during the Civil War would be documents depicting additional government requests for merchants to make supplies, a sample of the currency that was backed by neither the silver nor the gold, and a document explaining the new income tax (a tax that our students have always known about due to their parents having to pay it). I like the idea of introducing an object, much like the shoes at the beginning of this module, to begin discussions about how the government's relationship to the citizens began to change during this time.
Redirect: /content/shoe-connections-essay
Module Id: 1002
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The smallpox epidemic plagued the world for thousands of years. Pharaoh Ramses V fell victim to this disease as well as many European monarchs including Queen Mary II, Louis the XV, and Tsar Peter of Russia. It was once noted that one in every seven of Russian children had the disease in the 18th century, some not even receiving a name until they had proven that they could survive this deadly epidemic.
The smallpox epidemic certainly was not limited to Europe. When the Europeans arrived to colonize North America, they unfortunately brought smallpox with them. It is estimated that over a third of the Native American population was killed due to having no immunity to the disease. The slaves brought from the African countries could often fall victim to the disease as well.
Smallpox created quite the panic in Boston where eventually a smallpox vaccine was required for citizens of the city. During this time, Onesimus, a slave who belonged to famed minister Cotton Mather, described a method of protecting oneself from the disease by putting pus from an infected person into an open wound on one’s arm. Of the 242 people that were subjected to this treatment, only six died from the disease, proving to be an effective treatment for that time period. A vaccine was developed by British doctor Edward Jenner after he had injected material from a cowpox lesion into a young boy after recognizing a cowpox and smallpox connection. The development of this vaccine has impacted how we currently develop vaccines to combat deadly diseases today.
Unfortunately, smallpox has also been utilized as biological warfare. In 1763, a commander in chief of the British forces in North America wanted soldiers to give out blankets that had belonged to smallpox victims to purposely infect indigenous people. As late as 1992, there have been countries around the world exploring the reintroduction of smallpox for nefarious purposes.
Question 2:
Understanding the impact of infectious diseases on the course history is extremely important. What would the impact have been of those historical figures who were eradicated by the epidemics? It is estimated at the beginning of the 18th century that 400,000 Europeans fell victim to the disease annually. How would these people have contributed to society?
The way that these diseases were treated in those times influence how we deal with infectious diseases today. The concept of the vaccination was introduced by Edward Jenner and is still utilized today as our scientists are currently working diligently to develop a vaccination for the deadly coronavirus. Without documentation of these techniques and historical records of such diseases, we may still be at the mercy of the epidemics of diseases that they have developed vaccines for or even eradicated in the case of smallpox.
Redirect: /content/connections-essay-smallpox
Module Id: 954
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
This boundary stone represents the struggle of the young nation with the concept of slavery. This stone serves as a tangible reminder of the division created over this terrible institution. When Alexandria was returned to Virginia, it was done so to permit the Virginian slave trade to continue utilizing the port there without being in violation of the order that it would not occur in the Nation's Capital itself. The slave trade grew as slave holders began sending their surplus workers to Alexandria to be sold at firms such as Franklin and Armfield. The economy of Alexandria depended on the export and sale of other goods, but their role in the slave trade proved to be the most lucrative.
The rock is a physical boundary, but the continuation of the usage of slave labor in the capital for construction projects as well as in households shows that this boundary was outright ignored. The painting done by Eastman Johnson depicts the attitudes of many citizens in the city at that time. They knew that slavery was still in existence there, but they chose not to address the practices that were still continuing.
In our current time, we are still fighting to ensure the equal rights of everyone. We have laws in place to combat this discrimination, but we are still in the midst of this battle. We need to be unmoved like this stone, not a bystander like the woman in the painting.
Question 2:
As I teach Virginia History to Fourth Graders, I think that when we discuss borders, we are discussing them in regards to them lands of the colonists versus those belonging to the Native Americans. We discuss how lands were unfairly seized from them. In addition, we discuss the formation of West Virginia during the Civil War as well as the formation of other states from land originally belonging to the Virginia territory. We utilize copies of maps to assist us in these units.
Redirect: /content/stone-connections-essay
Module Id: 1039
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
This shirtwaist reflects the transition from the manufacturing of goods in small-scale, locally owned shops to the large factories that employed hundreds of workers. In addition, this shirtwaist represents the transformation of the role of women in the 20th century. Much plainer than the ornate and elaborate clothing of past eras, the shirtwaist allowed women freedom to travel and work beyond their homes. Women who were immigrants or had a lower socioeconomic could be employed at one of these factories that manufactured goods on a larger scale.
This posed a new problem, which unfortunately, still exists today: the unethical treatment of women in the workplace. These women were expected to work long hours in treacherous conditions with few to no breaks for a lesser wage than their male counterparts. They were being charged "fees" for their work materials and often ended up getting swindled out of what little compensation that they were supposed to be receiving.
While we are no longer toiling in the sweatshops, women are still not receiving the financial compensation for their work as their male counterparts do.
The Triangle Waist Company's fire incident exposed the need to regulate safety measures in the large manufacturing facilities. It was appalling to discover the owners were not charged in the deaths of the women who killed by their negligence. The doors were locked, the fire escape was built in such a flimsy manner that there was no hope of escaping without serous injury or death, and the factory was built so large that the fire-fighting equipment could not save them. If such an incident were to occur today, I feel that these men would charged.
Question 2:
The conditions of workers in the early 20th century were absolutely appalling. I would be interested in discussing the child labor conditions of this time as well as those of the immigrants. Our students are always amazed that children were expected to work in order to support their families. I would be interested to know what companies were among the first to regulate the working conditions of their employees and what unions were among the first to assist their workers in organizing protests and advocating for their rights.
Redirect: /content/shirtwaist-connections-essay
Module Id: 950
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
With the postal service sending out information to citizens about the abolitionists' movement in the South, one can clearly see the importance of spreading such information to campaign for human rights. I love how the postal service was employed in spreading the propaganda to Southern states where the abolishing of slavery was opposed by landowners who held many persons in servitude. The word was being spread, despite the obstacles.
The Founding Fathers had struggled with the concept of the institution of slavery, choosing not to include the word in historical documents, a subtle nod to the fact that they were hoping that the issue of slavery would be resolved by later generations. I had previously never heard Jefferson's quote that likened slavery to a man holding a wolf by the ears, not really wanting to do such a thing, but fearful of the consequences if he let it go. I cannot fathom Jefferson's personal views on this topic as History has proven that he had children who were slaves. I am certain that this deepened his difficulty of reconciling the existence of such a horrid institution. In his will, Jefferson freed 5 of the slaves at Monticello, two of his sons, Sally Hemings's nephews Joe Fossett and Burwell Colbert, and her half-brother John Hemings. Sally herself was never formally freed by Jefferson but did leave Monticello with her sons. Jefferson sent his daughters away from Monticello at the age of 21 with $50.00 for their journeys according to a Wikipedia article. I cannot imagine living in a society where I could not publicly acknowledge the existence of my sons and was forced to send them away.
The grass-roots movements for social equality are still utilizing mass communication such as the mail system today. Black Lives Matter and other social movements are using social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to get their messages out to the public.
Question 2:
I had absolutely no idea that there was a campaign through the mail to educate people on the evils of slavery. How awesome is that! They were still getting their message to parts of the deep South by utilizing a secret weapon: the postal service. I love this idea. In an age where there a campaigns on social media platforms, emails been sent, and websites being created, I am thrilled to have learned where the idea of distributing to the public began.
Redirect: /content/mail-connections-essay
Module Id: 1021
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The musket ball came from the Revolutionary War and symbolized the usage of the primitive weaponry of that war and the development of more advanced weapons to aid in the accuracy of the weapons.
It represents the role of the soldier as part of a unit, standing shoulder to shoulder in the ranks of the Colonial Army as they fought more elaborately trained British troops to pursue their freedom, despite the dangerous conditions that they encountered as they stood in a hail of gunfire steadfast.
This musket ball represents the unpredictability of the war. Where would the musket ball land? It was erratic and uncertain. How would the conflict between the British and the Americans end? It, too, was an unknown as militias and newly trained American soldiers were defending their newly formed territory against former allies now turned foes.
Question 2:
I would like to read civilian accounts of the armies as they observed the fighting. I would like to read newspaper accounts about the battles and the dealings with the troops as they marched through towns. I would like to examine correspondence from Washington as well as that from Cornwallis.
Redirect: /content/musket-ball-connections-essay
Module Id: 955
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The song is portraying America as the ¨melting pot¨, a place where many different cultures can come together to create a diverse populace, commonly referenced as the ¨Land of Opportunity¨. The harsh reality was, and still is, that only some are afforded this opportunity to succeed. We must work to remedy this situation today.
I find it appalling about the immigration laws that were passed in attempts to discriminate against those desiring to come from Asia. While this group was not the only group experiencing discrimination is some form, the Chinese Exclusion Act was targeting these people specifically. History seems to be repeating itself as there are talks of building a border wall. According to Forbes magazine, the rate of legal immigration to the United States has been reduced by 49%. The denial of highly skilled workers'applications has risen from 6% to 30% from fiscal year 2015 to fiscal year 2020, according to this source.
Our economy depends on all types of workers, skilled and unskilled, to flourish. When the immigrants came to the United States, they sought employment and a better opportunity for their families, but many were forced to work in frighteningly dangerous situations or at jobs that they were overqualified for. For instance, my great-great grandfather was educated at Cambridge. He was so proud of this accomplishment that he even had it engraved on his headstone per his request! He was forced to work in factory as a machinist despite his education because he was an immigrant.
Women and children in these immigrant families often had to be employed to support themselves. I cannot believe that child labor was still a practice a little over a century ago. These women and children were often in treacherous conditions like the Triangle Shirtwaist Company or the coal mines. Thankfully, the 20th century saw reforms for worker safety and the laws prohibiting child labor.
America is the land of diversity. We need to embrace our differences and learn from each other. Immigrants had much to offer our nation then, as well as in the present day.
Question 2:
I have had the opportunity to read some of the patent documents that my great-great grandfather wrote, but how awesome would it have been had he had a journal to reveal his first-hand accounts of events, including his arrival at Ellis Island! I think that reading the legal documents pertaining to immigration laws of the past would be valuable, but the primary resources of peopleś journeys and life here in the States after living abroad would be captivating.
Redirect: /content/record-connections-essay
Module Id: 1128
User Id: 1475
Question 1:
The dishwasher shown in the picture depicts the Americans' ability to shift their resources from making war goods to making items for daily living, while maintaining their jobs and strengthening their economy. With the fighting of the Second World War not occurring on our soil, with the exception of Pearl Harbor, our country did not suffer the civilian casualties and the destruction of factories.
The Americans were able to return to their lives and continue to push for capitalism, while the Europeans were advocating for communism with the destruction of their economy. The dishwasher represents the Americans having luxuries that the Europeans could not afford due to the economic situation after the war. Gadgets are still a sign of socioeconomic status in American society. I-phones and big screen televisions are the sought after items at present.
While the Marshall Plan did offer much needed aid to those war-ravaged areas, the Europeans were suffering. Eventually with money given by the United States, gross national products of those countries rose anywhere from 15% to 25% according to Britannica. com, and their chemical, engineering, and steel industries flourished.
Question 2:
Honestly, I did not comprehend the origins of the Cold War until I read the materials in this module. My sixteen-year-old son is a History buff and has tried to explain it to me many times. As a child of the 80s, it was ingrained that the United States and Russia were not allies. In todayś society, there are still accusations of election tampering. The Churchill quote was one that I had never read as I was unaware of where the term ¨iron curtain¨ had originated.
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Question 1:
Speaking from as a member from a farming family, agriculture is still an incredibly labor-intensive economic endeavor. McCormick's reaper, much like the cotton gin, made the work of farming quicker and more efficient. The machinery being created would lead to the gathering of raw materials that could be utilized in the manufacturing of goods. By utilizing the teams of horses in pulling this machine, it increased the amount of land that farmers could use while decreasing their physical labor. The amount of wheat that they were able to harvest far surpassed that of generations before. Due to the efficiency of the reaper, a team of two men and a horse were able to gather an equivalent amount of wheat as twenty people had been able to previously by hand.
Laborers on the farm became displaced and had to seek employment elsewhere as they flocked to the cities to find work. As people traveled to the cities and goods became abundant enough to trade, railways, waterways, and roads were developed.
Question 2:
I would be interested in seeing the pamphlets that were created in trying to sell the modernized farming equipment, justifying why people should invest in it. My father-in-law worked as a John Deere dealer for over 50 years and kept many of the sales materials from over five decades. The machinery had evolved significantly as they developed more complex technology.
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Question 1:
My hypothesis was somewhat correct as the item pictured was a stereoscope used to make objects appear three-dimensional to the viewer, much like the viewfinder toy that children from the 80s were so fond of. The stereoscope gave citizens from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds the opportunity to ¨travel¨ to different locations through the three-dimensional cards viewed using this machine. While they did not have the financial resources to make these journeys, they could still experience the beautiful scenery. This reminds me of the later television and movie experiences that we have the privilege of partaking in today. With current advances in picture quality and surround sound, we can experience places and events as if we were truly present at that location. Much like the libraries of today, the devices could be loaned to those who had the expendable income to have such a pleasure.
The images influenced the Americans who viewed them. The housewife depicted wanted the items shown in the photo that she was viewing. It was a commercial without the audio! She aspired to own the items that were in the card. Who did not want the ¨Rachel¨ haircut after watching ¨Friends¨? The influence of the photos of the stereograph and stereoscope were the precursor to that.
The ¨luck and pluck¨ ideology still exists today. There are college students who are door-to-door salespeople as they try to obtain funds for their educations. We still as the American people believe that if you work hard enough that fortune will smile upon you.
Question 2:
Our students have never known life without advanced technology in media. I think that it would be beneficial for them to hear from people in firsthand accounts about what previous technology was like. Show them a Polaroid camera or camera with actual film. My mother came from a family who was the first in town to own a television. She always tells students about how primitive it was and how people who ¨were in the neighborhood¨ would flock to see it.
Students are becoming fascinated with objects like CDs and record players as they consider them to be vintage. I have a television in my classroom with a VHS player, the only one in the building. The children are fascinated with the VCR and always comment on the different sound and picture quality from our new flatscreen TV at the front of the classroom.
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Question 1:
The dress shown here depicts a garment that could have been sewn on a sewing machine which allowed women to work outside of the homes as seamstresses using this technology. My mother was a seamstress at a local sewing factory before its close in the late 90s. This took many women out of their homes and away from their families, but it also encouraged independence as women began to experience life outside of those four walls.
The dress was considered to be fashionable at the time which encouraged women to obtain dresses that were of the latest style. This particular dress was white, which was considered to represent purity and its preservation.
As the mother of a child with special needs, I was extremely offended that some of these women believed that children would have ¨physical deformities that mirrored the emotional and spiritual deformities of the parents¨. While I agree with their views on reproductive rights and the cessation of prostitution, I cannot believe that they used this type of propaganda in their fight for their cause. The concept of eugenics was also mentioned in this module. Apparently, the concept of Eugenic Feminism emerged from the Suffrage Movement where some of the suffragettes argued that women were the ¨mothers of a race¨. The Famous Five was a group of women from Canada who advocated for this. One of the members, Nellie McClung, supported The Sexual Sterilization Act of 1928 that was created in Alberta, Canada to prevent people who were deemed ¨mentally disabled¨ from having children. The white dress was supposed to represent freedom and justice for women, but I view that differently after reading about the exploits of The Famous Five.
Upon further research online, I discovered that Susan B. Anthony, a hero of this movement, had made an extremely racist comment concerning the rights of voting African American men and Caucasian women, stating that the right to vote should be given to the ¨most intelligent and capable portion of women first¨. She made this comment to Frederick Douglass, famous abolitionist and fellow proponent for females to have the right to vote. I am literally shaking my head in disbelief.
This beautiful, seemingly simple white dress represents something that was far more complex than I envisioned: a fight for rights that was marred by ugly racism and eugenics. It makes me even more painfully aware that we cannot simply believe what we were taught or told, but that we must continuously seek knowledge. We must encourage our students to do the same.

Question 2:
would like to read first-hand accounts of the main leaders of the movement as well as those of women who participated in the marches, protests, etc. I would like to explore more of the posters and propaganda associated with this movement as I had never known the association with the eugenics movement until today. I am shocked and dismayed as a woman to know that people even attempted to use this as a way to sway public opinion. I also assumed that the Women's Suffrage Movement was filled with positivity as they advocated for equal rights, but I learned that there was a side of this issue that I had never been taught in traditional history classes.
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Question 1:
Upon closer examination of the tires, I saw that many of them had little to no tread left on them as the Americans had to utilize them for as long as they could due to the shortage of rubber during the war and the lack of a synthetic rubber. The Japanese were controlling the areas where the rubber was produced, leading to a shortage during the war when the military vehicles required it.
We are currently dealing with shortages in the pandemic. Spray Lysol is a rarity these days in our rural part of the state. Procuring it is extremely difficult. PPE was incredibly hard to obtain at the start of the pandemic as local women were hand making masks for our frontline healthcare workers and the hospitals here were asking for assistance in getting them. There are still limits on certain products that we are permitted to buy in many of our stores here to discourage hoarding of supplies. This picture symbolizes the effort of our fellow Americans as they were fighting the oppression of the Nazis, and our conserving of supplies (and not hoarding them) symbolizes our current fight against the spread of the coronavirus.
Question 2:
Students need to look for the details when examining pictures. For instance, I focused on the number of tires in the pile, not on the fact that they were severely worn out. I would ask them to look more closely as they are looking at images, go deeper than the surface.
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Module Id: 1108
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Question 1:
We are constantly pursuing the improvement of technology. The transistor depicted reminds us of these advances. My husband had one of the early cell phones when we were teens. It was humongous and had a bag to carry it. This was a far cry from the slender I-phones and Androids of today.
What once was science fiction is now a reality with the creation of new technology. Face Time is a daily occurrence. I cannot help but think of how the Jetsons predicted this so many years ago!
The transistor was amazing technology for its time, but it amazes me how technology has changed and become more accessible as inventions are constantly being created. The telephone is one of a plethora of inventions that demonstrate this phenomena. It is no longer attached to the wall with a troublesome cord, and one can literally talk anywhere! Who knows what the next forty years will bring! I am hoping for holographic images and something that will cook for me!
Question 2:
I think that students need to understand the scientific concepts behind evolving technology. For instance, how does a circuit work? What does it take to create a successful, functioning circuit? It may be the Science teacher in me, but I think that the how an invention works is just as important as the why if we want students to pursue careers in the technology sector.
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Module Id: 1146
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Title: Artifacts in the Classroom
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I would like to use some artifacts in the classroom to allow my students to have an opportunity to examine them. Many of our students do not have the opportunity to go to museums to visit and see them in person with us being in a such a rural community. With the current situation with the COVID-19, we may have to use the virtual field trips using some type of system like Zoom or Google Meet to permit students to have the opportunity examine these historical artifacts.
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Module Id: 689
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Title: Pottery and a Local Connection
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I have always dreamed of having my students examine the pottery of the Pamunkey tribe of King William, Virginia. The Pamunkey people are still skilled pottery makers. I feel that pottery is an important artifact of days of the past. The pottery of the colonials is still of intrigue to archaeologists as they have been examining shards of pottery from various sites, including the Williamsburg dig site. I think that this demonstration with the tea cup picture would be a great starting point for discussing the economic interdependence between Great Britain and the colonies for my Fourth Graders.
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Module Id: 951
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Title: Different Types of Homes
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think that it would be of interest to our students to explore the different types of homes in our area after having the discussion about the importance of nails during the early days of our nation. We have the replica home of Madam Russell, Patrick Henry's sister, an example of the early cabins of Appalachia as well as the one on our property. We have stone houses in the area as well as examples of the balloon houses in the company houses built in town by Olin Mathieson, a chemical company who basically controlled our little town from the 1800s until the late 60s/early 70s. Students could select a type of structure to construct and research.
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Module Id: 953
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Title: Products of Yesteryear
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think that it would be incredibly intriguing for students to get to view how products were packaged and marketed in the past. I think it would be interesting to ask them to research the origins of certain products.
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Module Id: 1147
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Title: A Current Connection
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
Students could discuss how the current situation has similarities with the smallpox epidemic. Students need to make a history and science connection. I teach science, so I definitely advocate for this! If it were not for the scientists and doctors of the past investigating how to cure such diseases, we would not have a starting point for developing vaccines and treatments currently.
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Module Id: 954
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Title: Shoes
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
In elementary school, our students truly depend on tangible objects to facilitate their learning. I like the idea of depicting the shoes and asking them how that they think that these seemingly commonplace items would have symbolized the changing relationship between the federal government and the citizens during the Civil War. The advertisements requesting the manufacturing of goods and the political cartoons would also be excellent resources as many of my students are engaged with such objects as they are visual learners.
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Module Id: 1002
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Title: Shoes
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
In elementary school, our students truly depend on tangible objects to facilitate their learning. I like the idea of depicting the shoes and asking them how that they think that these seemingly commonplace items would have symbolized the changing relationship between the federal government and the citizens during the Civil War. The advertisements requesting the manufacturing of goods and the political cartoons would also be excellent resources as many of my students are engaged with such objects as they are visual learners.
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Module Id: 1002
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Title: The Creation of Washington, DC: The Birth of the Capital
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
My students have always been fascinated with Washington, DC as my younger brother Wes resides there and teaches in Arlington. We have exchanged letters with his students over the years. I think that they need to comprehend what all the creation of the capital city entailed. While students learn about the importance of the location of the capital city in the new nation, I think that we need to further explore the actual design and construction of the city.
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Title: Connections
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think that students would be interested in knowing about how their counterparts of the 20th century lived. Many children are not aware of the fact that children were expected to work and contribute to the income of the family. Students would investigate the life of a child worker and compose a story written from the perspective of that character.
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Module Id: 950
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Title: The Importance of Obtaining Information
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I would have my students imagine themselves in the role of an abolitionist trying to spread the word in the slave-holding South about abolishing slavery. These children are extremely savvy about social media as they have been accustomed to using it with such apps as Facebook Messenger for Kids. I would ask them what means that they would use to get the message to as many people as they could. After their initial brainstorming session, I would have them examine a picture of this letter, and tell them about the mail campaign.
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Module Id: 1021
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Title: Musket Ball
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I would like students to have the opportunity to examine a musket ball. I feel that by looking at a piece of history that they would make a more personal connection to it. Many of our students hunt with their parents and have an interest in weaponry. I think that they would be interested in learning about these weapons and would love to watch a demonstration of someone firing one. At the local Civil War re-enactment, they get to see someone fire a replica gun and the students love it.
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Module Id: 955
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Title: The History of An Immigrant
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think it would be awesome for students to investigate the life of an immigrant to portray as a variation of a project that my brother Wes does with his students where they portray historical figures and tell about their motivations and journey to the United States. Teachers could gather information for students to select their country of origin. Students could even integrate writing into the project by composing letters as this person.
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Module Id: 1128
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Title: Life After the War
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think my students would be interested in investigating the origins of some of the gadgets that are currently commonplace in their homes such as the dishwasher. Students in this day and age are used to the technology and think nothing of why it was created.
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Module Id: 1093
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Title: Necessity: The Mother of Invention
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
When I was a child, there was a contest in which students created new inventions and submitted their ideas to a panel of judges. The invention that one had to create for the contest was supposed to serve some sort of purpose to improve one's quality of life. I think that students could examine the inventions such as the reaper and design their own inventions with the intent of making daily tasks more efficient.
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Module Id: 952
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Title: Luck and Pluck
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
I think that having the students hypothesize what the stereoscope was used for would be quite interesting. I wish that we could obtain one for them to physically examine. Children have grown up with television and YouTube. I think it would be interesting to challenge them to entertain themselves for 24 hours another way.
I think that the concept of ¨luck and pluck¨ should be introduced to them. They could research people such as Mark Zuckerberg who have risen due to their advances in media. They could explore how these advances affect our daily lives.
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Module Id: 1047
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Title: Hidden Undertones: Do NOT Believe Everything You Were Taught
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
Well, I must say that I was taken aback by the racism and eugenics components of the suffrage movement. I cannot believe that my teachers failed to mention any of this to me! Never ever! We colored pictures of Susan B. Anthony, read library books about her, celebrated her in general. She was even on the list of Famous Americans whose contributions that we were required to know. After further research online, I feel like that we were only given one side to this story. I have always encouraged my students to be free thinkers, not to simply believe what they are taught or told. I think that I will remind them to research historical events more thoroughly and search for different perspectives.
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Module Id: 1075
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Title: Conserving Supplies: Reducing Our Waste
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
My classroom is currently full of plastic pickle jars, paper towel rolls, and toilet paper rolls. Why? Well, my colleagues might say that I am our resident hoarder, but I reuse these items for many projects. Got Tide Pods containers? We can paint them into snowmen to celebrate the coming of winter. Those pickle jars have a multitude of uses! We encourage the re-purposing of objects in this classroom every day. We even have been known to meltdown broken crayons to make new colorful disks.
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Module Id: 1108
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Title: Creation of Circuits and Can Phones
Grade Level: Elementary
Short Answer:
Students need to create. In Fourth Grade, we have Science SOL that pertains to electricity. Students need to be able to create a safe, simple circuit to understand how electrical circuits function. In addition, in Fifth Grade, we have the SOL pertaining to sound. Each year, my students in Fifth Grade create the can or cup phones to demonstrate how sound travels.
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