Submitted work by MelindaK

Analyzing Objects

Porcelain

Musket Ball

Smallpox

Nail

Reaper

Shirtwaist

Transistor

Coffee

Record

Tire

Dishwasher

Dress

Stereograph

Stone

Mail

Shoe

Question 1:
In my opinion, historical thinking is analyzing sources to construct meaningful connections to the past about a specific person or event/ time period.
Question 2:
When you investigate a primary source like a letter you can view history through the lense of someone who was actually there. I think this can be meaningful as you can gain insight as to what it would have been like to "walk in that person's shoes". Also, if you are looking at an items like a tool you may be able to deduce what kind of daily tasks they did or challenges that they had to overcome. This can be good in a classroom setting as it forces students to think about the lives of those who they are studying; viewing them as people and not just dates or events.
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Question 1:
In my opinion, historical thinking is analyzing sources to construct meaningful connections to the past about a specific person or event/ time period.
Question 2:
When you investigate a primary source like a letter you can view history through the lense of someone who was actually there. I think this can be meaningful as you can gain insight as to what it would have been like to "walk in that person's shoes". Also, if you are looking at an items like a tool you may be able to deduce what kind of daily tasks they did or challenges that they had to overcome. This can be good in a classroom setting as it forces students to think about the lives of those who they are studying; viewing them as people and not just dates or events.
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Question 1:
I notice the following about the object:
- There are black rubber tires stacked
-They are skinnier than tires used today (normally)
-They are in front of what appears to be steel (or metal) framed windows
-The ground looks very dry/ limited grass
-The tires have multiple patterns; meaning they are from different places
-The tires are different sizes
-The photograph is in black and white with an uneven border
Question 2:
In my opinion, this is most likely a photograph that was taken during a war drive when there was a shortage for rubber. While I cannot be positive, I would guess that this photo is from 1941-1945. Additionally, you could make that connection that during a war a country typically has to make sacrifices.
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Question 1:
-It is black and white (could be old)
-There are multiple circles
-It looks like a cell body to me
Question 2:
In the case that it is some sort of cell body, it could be connected to early microscopes or scientific research.
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Question 1:
These shoes are old and dirty
They are made of a leather
The sewing on the bottom is not perfectly straight
They look on smaller side (size wise)
Question 2:
It could connect to the hardships of the American people especially the working class in that you usually had to wear shoes until your wore them out.

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Question 1:
She appears to be upper class
The cars make it look like it may be in the early 1900's
She is wearing a banner and dressed in white
If I had to guess, this is a suffragette in the early 1900's who is about to be in a parade.
Question 2:
This connects to women's rights and roles changing within society as time progressed.
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Question 1:
It is old/ rusty
It is food based (milk)
It was made in New York
It is probably tin or aluminum
Question 2:
It could be connected to production or I am probably wrong, but it reminds me of something from the Cold War era where people were preparing for nuclear attacks.
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Question 1:
It is a kitchen
It is a dishwasher
There appears to be another appliance on the counter
They do not overly care about privacy as their currents are rather see-through
Question 2:
I think that this could be connected to gender roles and technological advancements in the 20th century
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Question 1:
It was from the Post office of the CSA
Cursive writing
Being sent to SC
Question 2:
It can connect to issues of slavery, states rights and treason.

Additionally, it could connect to internal struggles that countries face.
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Question 1:
It is a shirt that has buttons and a high collar. There is a tie around the waist
Question 2:
It could connect to the production of clothing during the industrial era or it could connect to changing fashion as time progresses.
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Question 1:
Historical thinking is the process which you can go about analyze and make deductions about history based on sources.
Question 2:
I agree with what I said before, but I now realize you can use an object to help to teach students how to think about history. The video about the candle maker really stood out to me. Often I have seen this concept, but not fully understood how to implement historical thinking in relation to objects. Additionally, in the one about Thomas Jefferson and the road and how it was designed to promote productivity seeing and hearing these things can make it seem more "alive" and connectable than just saying, for example, Jefferson owned slaves.
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Question 1:
The tires in this picture connect to rationing and doing without during the "war years". It also connects to the responsibility of the American Citizen to make these sacrifices for the good of the country. Looking at a larger scale, it was not just America who had to make sacrifices. England, as noted, had rationing well into the 1950's.
Question 2:
What do you see or notice about this?
What is it?
What type of source is it?
Where do you think it was taken?
Why is this photo significant?
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Question 1:
In my opinion, looking at smallpox outbreaks can help you better understand the lives of the people who were alive at the time. The risk of infection was ever present, especially in highly populated areas.

Additionally, I think you can connect it to scientific advancements made in the 18th century. When investigating this course you can look at public reactions as it varied.

You could also look at how Washington used this science to save many of his troops
Question 2:
I think when you are looking at history though a "disease lense" you are seeing big picture figures like how many people died, but one possible drawback is you are not learning anything about the actual people who suffered.

You can see, in hindsight how some places could deal with the outbreaks more effectively and therefore determine which regions were potentially more developed or less developed with could be helpful in understanding history.

In my opinion, I think the biggest drawback is the impersonal nature and you are only focusing on one thing that is happening at the time. History and life in general does not allow you to only have one problem at a time, regreftully.
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Question 1:
I think that this shoe can connect to the fact that America had not become overly industrialized by the time the Civil War started. I thought it was interesting to learn about the standardized shoe sizing and how it was not a thing.

The shoe could also connect to the conditions that Civil War soldier had to endure. I am sure most of them did not have shoes that fit them well and they were not made well.
Question 2:
I think you could use draft notices for the Civil War. You could use statistics of those being drafted and those who lost their lives. You could look at journals or newspapers to see what the people thought of the draft. You could look at government documents/ or firsthand accounts from officials.
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Question 1:
The dress connects to the idea of "purity" as it is white and how women wanted a right that they felt was non-threatening.

This also connects to the idea that some women believed that their roles in society should change. That they should have more freedoms and an equal status to their male counterparts.
Question 2:
I would be interested to look into the issues of birth control and a women's right over her body (basically, sources about that). Timelines and articles that were written after the movement analyzing progress.

Additionally, I would be interested to use secondary sources to look into the opposition of women's rights.

You could also look at history books to gain a comprehensive understanding of the issue.
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Question 1:
Instant coffee connects to the changes that food undertook due to WWII. Our government realized that well fed troops performed better than those who were undernourished. In that, they developed innovative means to send food, like a "K-Ration". Following the wars end, so much effort had been put into "modernizing" food that the idea was marketed to the general public.
Question 2:
Some of the limitations are that sometimes what is said is different than what is actually felt. You also have to look at who was writing the articles and what their motive was. Additionally, it is an error to make statements for the whole public as there are always going to be outliers.
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Question 1:
In my opinion, it does in fact connect to advancement of technology during and after WWII. Additionally, it connects to the fact that America emerged as a super power following the war, especially economically. Due to the fact that much of Europe was destroyed it allowed for American factories to thrive. Thus connecting the the broader theme that America became a global superpower during the 20th century.
Question 2:
I realized even more so the sharp competition between nations to be the best. Specifically the contention that exists between Communism and Capitalism. Additionally, during the Cold War there were a lot of technological advancements which were highlighted during this unit.
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Question 1:
It connects to the abolitionist movement in America. It also represents, in a way the limited contact most Americans had with the Federal Government (as it was just the with the Post Office). Additionally, it connects to slavery in American society.
Question 2:
While I was already aware of most of it as I teach this content, I had not heard about the mail raid in SC. I think in the future I will bring that up as it shows how much resistance the south had towards abolitionist ideas.
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Question 1:
It connects to the changing roles of women in that some worked out of the home and that women were pushing to obtain more rights. Additionally, it can connect to sweatshops and the poor working conditions that existed for many.
Question 2:
What were working conditions like for children?
How often frequent were workers abused (verbal, mental, sexual).
Was pay different amongst different ethnic groups in these factories (did the Irish make more than the Italians)
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Title: 6th Grade US History- Primary Sources
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
Based on this module, I could see using primary sources in a variety of ways to engage learning and promote historical thinking. I think it would be interesting to utilize the newspaper on the wanted slave from Thomas Jefferson when discussing the Declaration of Independence. Some students realize that he was a slave owner, but it is one thing to know something and another to see it. I would have them analyze the article first and then we would talk about the major ideals in the Declaration and compare and contrast. This would also lead into a conversation about slavery.

Additionally, I could see using primary sources, specifically items when covering the Civil War. In a non COVID year, I usually pass around bullets and we talk about how technology had progressed and the process of how they were made. It helps students to understand the personal nature of the Civil War. In that, it was much slower than today's warfare. You had to be very close to shoot and often saw the face of the person you attacked. I would really like to, if I had the resources to do something where students do not know what the object is and have them manipulate it to try and make connections. I really found that video insightful.
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Title: When Junk becomes History
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
In my opinion, I think it would be interesting to show this photo in a classroom and ask students some of the same questions we were asked (about what they observe). Most students will be able to identify that it is a photo of tires. Some may acknowledge that the tires look different than the ones we use today. I think this would be a great way to assess a student's prior knowledge as some may already know about war rationing. Furthermore, this would be a great way to introduce the WWII Homefront. I think it would help students to better understand the sacrifices those who experienced the war had to make as in today's world we do not think of tires are anything special.

Additionally, it would be interesting to try the setup of this module for a virtual lesson. I like how there are images that students click on that them take them through a set of information and they have questions to answer.
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Title: Revolutionizing Small Pox
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
Based on the course I teach (US I), I could incorporate the content of this into one of two places. I could either explore the disease when we talk about indigenous peoples or when we learn about the American Revolution. I felt like this was a lot of good information and am learning towards doing something very similar with the American Revolution unit. I like how it started with a slide of the disease. I think many students could identify this as something biological, but it certainly peaked my interest as I didn't know what specimen I was actually looking at. I would consider doing a gallery of primary sources, like this module, and then having questions about some of them to gain insight from the students. I think that this module did a good job in showing the human side of the disease which is often overlooked when dealing with large figures of death.
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Title: Protests & Uncle Sam's Shoe Dilemma
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I think you could use this material in two ways. You could use the shoe to help students connect to the hardships that Civil War soldiers faced. I would add some additional photos of their clothing and other supplies that they used. Additionally, we could read some journal accounts from the men (or women) themselves.

Additionally, you could use this content to talk about how the Government changed its role. I think you could talk about the draft and compare and contrast this situation to that of Vietnam. Many of my students have family members that were involved in Vietnam so I think it would be a great way to make a connection.
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Title: Women get the Vote
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I like a lot of the propaganda posters from this time period as well as photographs. I think it would be neat to create a gallery walk (or a digital one, due to COVID) where students could work though different pieces. This could be done one of two ways. You could either give students information on each image or you could present them with propaganda and have them figure out what the goal is. I think not telling them what the information is would force them to actually analyze the propaganda and take some time with it.
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Title: Winning a War with Food
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I think it would be interesting to introduce the concept of canned food and military rations to students and then connect it to WWII. In that, I would have students look at the rations from different countries and determine differences and/ or similarities. I believe that this would be a great way to had students view propaganda and talk about how food was marketed.

Additionally, you could also connect this information to gender roles and how the roles of women changed during the 20th century.
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Title: Cold War, Warm Dishes
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I think it would be interesting to have students look at the standard of living for Russian citizens vs American citizens. In that, you could connect it to teaching the difference between communism and capitalism. Additionally, you could use many of the primary sources in the module to enhance understanding of the Cold War and technological advancements during the 20th century.
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Title: Slavery in America
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I would do a gallery walk with this information so that students could look at artifacts and make their own deductions. In the past, as I have worked in small towns before, it always surprises students that religion was used to justify slavery. You could start with discussing the history of the mail service and ask students what they know about mail (as everyone should know something about it). You could even take an artifact to start the discussion like in this module a letter from the CFA. I
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Title: Workers Rights
Grade Level: Middle
Short Answer:
I have used the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire as part of my curriculum when looking at workers conditions. Typically I show them a short video clip and some primary sources and then they have some questions that lead to a discussion. I usually couple this with excerpts from the "Jungle" and photographs from "How the Other Half Lives". This content is usually met with a lot of discussion and disgust. Lastly, I try to direct the discussion the the why. Why did workers put up with these conditions? Why was this allowed to happen? Which leads to deeper connection and research.
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