Submitted work by RandyS

Analyzing Objects

Porcelain

Musket Ball

Smallpox

Nail

Reaper

Shirtwaist

Transistor

Coffee

Record

Tire

Dishwasher

Dress

Stereograph

Stone

Mail

Shoe

Question 1: I noticed first of all.that this looks like expensive antique porcelain. To
Question 2:
Business between countries or fellow politicians might have been conducted over a cup of coffee or tea.
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Question 1:
This seems to be a ball for a musket. I don’t know if this sphere has become warped from age or perhaps from where lt was used and then aged. Accuracy would’ve been questionable at best.
Question 2:
Who made this musket ball? Did America have the capability, especially in early years, to make their own ammunition? Did America get weapons and ammunition from say France for example. France stood a lot to gain from American independence. A war with the newly formed America would be easier to win.
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Question 1:
To me historical thinking is partially learning from our past and taking this knowledge and try to improve our future.
Question 2: Every historical artifact has
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Question 1:
To me historical thinking is partially learning from our past and taking this knowledge and try to improve our future.
Question 2:
Every historical artifact has a history behind the object. I think every object has a beginning and what we think is insignificant it might be just the opposite.
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Question 1: It seems to be some sort of bacteria under a microscope.
Question 2:
I think that it could be some sort of bacteria from days gone by. In light of the Covid-19 pandemic, I suspect it is bacteria that we manage today.
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Question 1:
These look like hand made spikes or nails. What I noticed first was that they aren’t uniform in size and shape.
Question 2:
Mechanization during the industrial revolution allowed for more standardized tools that fit every situation it was meant to be used. Examples in the case of nails would be 10 penny nails, 20 penny nails; uniformity in size.
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Question 1:
I notice the long rails that makes me think this is an old piece of horse drawn farm machinery. I think it might have been used for harvesting something.
Question 2:
When horse drawn farming machinery came into use they were labor saving devices. Machinery in agriculture went from horse drawn plows to the machinery used today. If this is farm machinery the developments have allowed farmers to produce enough food to feed the world.
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Question 1: I notice that the shoes have wooden pegs instead of nails or glue.
Question 2: Everyday things have evolved in the way they were made.
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Question 1: It is from the Civil War and an official business letter and is postage free.
Question 2:
Official correspondence was sent by regular mail rather than special delivery as it would be eventually.
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Question 1:
The porcelain cup and saucer did not represent a cup of coffee or tea. It would have been seen as a luxury and taxed as such. Other taxes that the colonists were subject to included the Hat Tax, SugarTax and the tax on anything that was considered a luxury. In the beginning the colonists considered themselves as British citizens not just colonists. After the Seven Year War with the French and the debt it left, plus just the goods that had been going to and from the colonies, Britain was taxing the colonies heavily. As a result of all these taxes and how it seemed to be repealed but we’re just replaced with different taxes but we’re really the same led to the boycotting of British goods.
Question 2:
Other information that I would like to know is how many colonists became rich during the period before the Revolutionary War and if they became rich because of their cooperation with the British. It would also be interesting to know if rich colonists stayed in the colonies when war was pending or did they return to Britain.If they stayed did they support the colonists cause?
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Question 1:
The smooth bore musket was easier and quicker to load than a rifle but the accuracy was terrible. Given the European war model was just line up as close as possible, the musket ball didn’t have to be accurate because by the law of averages you had to hit someone. Battles were fought like this for quite sometime and since you were shoulder to shoulder and were well practiced with the easier to load musket ball. The use of this war model continued throughout the majority of the 18th century even though militias didn’t think lining up was very wise. When the Continental Army was formed, the European war model of shoulder to shoulder was used due to the use of the musket ball and the seeming success of the British.
Question 2:
In Europe, armies were long standing and drilled to maintain the “fighting” skills. It was important that they maintain the military mindset that no matter what , you stood on the line unless you were commanded otherwise. However, in the newly independent America the Continental Army went from 25,000 standing members to 1,000 members . Other countries had professional soldiers while America would depend on volunteers or conscription during this time.
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Question 1:
Historical thinking is a process that requires a student to look at a situation or an object not to make an immediate decision but to ask questions, take into consideration what period in time would the situation or the object would have impacted.
Question 2:
Students should be taught critical thinking skills. Ask themselves questions about what was the purpose of the object. You might also ask them to discuss what time period might the object have been invented. In other words while looking at the object, have a guided discussion.
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Question 1:
Smallpox ultimately lead to a new way to treat a potentially deadly disease. It affected all social levels and was really quite brutal. It effected the colonial army, with more soldiers dying from smallpox than the war. As is true for all new treatments inoculation was very controversial. The development of a better treatment through investigation of milk maids and cowpox, greatly improved not only smallpox but in time this method help protect people from many other diseases
Question 2:
The benefits are during the investigative process, treatments for other diseases may be found. The major drawback is the number of deaths that occur during this process. Trial and error medicine on human beings is not without great risk.
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Question 1:
It took Americans from the log cabin which became a symbol of early America to the America that had vastly changed in construction. All of the changes in construction style had to do with how expensive the nail was. Building styles and materials went from the log cabin to the more up to date two story home.Homes could even be ordered from Sears catalogs. As expansion in America took place it was still expensive to build a home but availability of supplies became somewhat easier to obtain.
Question 2:
Very simply put as supplies and materials to build became easier to obtain the more the west changed. Nails were machine made thus not as labor intensive. This made the nail cheaper and easier to obtain because of mass production. This westward expansion was one of many reasons for Indian removal.The west was the pathway to a more successful settler and the discovery of precious metals pushed settlers ever westward. Some found riches some were even poorer but the nail kept driving them on.
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Question 1:
The broader themes in 19th century century include the fact that fewer farmers were needed and subsistent farming was almost a thing of the past. All of this began with the invention of the reaper and other improvements that resulted in larger farms that needed fewer workers because machinery did the job faster.

Improvements in transportation was another change brought about by the improvements in farming. Once harvested, farm goods needed to get to markets quicker. This lead to improvements in roadways, manmade canals and ultimately the need for the railroad..
Question 2:
The changes in our agrarian society led to the growth in the population in cities. Since farming was less labor intensive farmers had to find other ways to support their families. The cities neede workers to build not only farm machinery but other machinery as well. Also their was growth in other production of other necessities as well such as fabric for clothing ,ready made clothing, eventually canning of foods in tin cans and the meat packing industry. The times were changing.
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Question 1:
As I said earlier these were everyday boots but not for farmers or an entire northern army. These boots would have been a necessity. Since they are an important part of army issue, small shops couldn’t keep up with demanded and led eventually to mass produced items of inferior quality sold at an ever increasing price. The army was supposed to check the quality which became impossible. A longer war than expected led to the most intervention from the federal government ever. America was forever changed on both sides.
Question 2:
The federal government was in charge of the entire war. The days of state and local militias was gone. Wars from that point on were directed by the federal government. Income taxes eventually became just a part of regular everyday life. Wars today are financed through taxes and not mass sales of war bonds. There was a standing army from that point on; just not as large as during war time. The drafting of soldiers instituted by the federal government was used in wars as needed.
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Title: Gaining Independence
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
Students could compare the 1770 Boston Massacre, the 1773 Tea Act and the subsequent Boston Tea Party, and the 1774 Coercive Acts related to their role in gaining independence. I think students could and need to receive a broader interpretation of these documents. I could use this activity before going into the formation of government in early America.
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Title: Compare and Contrast
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
Students will show the similarities and differences between the British army, and Continental Army using primary source and I would like to use some of the material available in this class because it was excellent material I would set it up to have them compare and contrast tactics, and weapons used during this time period..
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Title: Mummification Process
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
I plan on doing the lesson in the opposite direction. I will give the students the tools used in the mummification process one at time and allow them to think what each tool would be used for in ancient times. I hope this will allow more critical thinking skills. I will tell the students at the end instead of the beginning what each tool or material was used for in this time period.
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Title: Black Death
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
I think a lesson in my World History class comparing the effects of smallpox and Black Plaque on societies would allow students to see how important sanitation is in society. I think students could also incorporate the idea of the effects of Covid today. Students will appreciate the research after going through Covid themselves.
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Title: Prehistoric structures
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
Students need to study the different materials and objects used to construct permanent settlements. I think as a teacher we just teach about the permanent settlements and not the steps needed to accomplish their projects. I think this would also work with the 4 river valley civilizations also.
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Title: Impact of the Agriculture Revolution on Inventions
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
Students will research the impact inventions had from the Agricultural Revolution until the Renaissance. Students will include a timeline of all inventions that made agriculture what it is today. Agriculture made a road system whether the students realized or not and now they may be able to see the impact over time in history.
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Title: The Cost of War
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
I would have students research the cost that goes into funding soldiers in the major wars of the 20th century. I have always had students in government research each department of government and I think this could show students the enormous amount of money that goes into funding the military and that this is necessary. The is only the beginning of the cost. Students I don’t think realize that in the military as well as others job require certain types of shoes and uniform to perform their job. My first job was a government job which required me to have steel toed boots and this was an expense paid by me not the employer.
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Title: Is mail covered under the Constitution?
Grade Level: High
Short Answer:
Students would have an opportunity to go into more detail with the Constitution and research the role mail played in the history of the Constitution. I like this entire module and was excellent eye opener for me and I feel my students will get a better understanding.Student project would be just like the title “Is mail covered under the Constitution “ and explain how and how this relates to the first amendment.
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